The frequent occurrence of rock burst disasters in coal mines still seriously restricts the safe and efficient deep mining of coal. The study of rock burst disasters needs to correlate the occurrence mechanism, monitoring and warning and comprehensive prevention and control, and establish a comprehensive prevention and control system of rock burst in deep mining. For the purpose of rock burst prevention and control, the structural control concept, scientific connotation and technical route of rock burst structure control for rock burst disaster prevention and control are proposed. The analysis shows that the structure of coal and rock mass is the root cause of the evolution of surrounding rock stress field, and the change of system structure is the root cause of stress change and transfer. Stress is only the external manifestation of system structure change, and rock burst disaster prevention and control should start from the regulation of coal and rock mass structure. Based on the analysis of the mechanism and prevention of rock burst disasters, the core scientific problems of structural control of deep rock burst disasters are put forward, including the spatial and temporal evolution of stress field of coal and rock mass under disturbance, the coupling identification and early warning of multiple precursory information of deep rock burst, and the structural control and shock reduction mechanism of deep high stress coal and rock mass. On this basis, a multivariate monitoring and warning system composed of stress-electromagnetic radiation-geophone-microseismic monitoring is proposed to realize the multi-scale monitoring of roadway, stope and coating rock structural fracture within the mining area. According to the technical route of structural control of rock burst disaster in deep mining composed of regional subsystems and local subsystems, a structural control system composed of protective layer + negative coal pillar mining, hydraulic fracturing, deep hole blasting and large diameter drilling was proposed to reduce the risk of rock burst disaster. The structural control system has been successfully applied in the No.4 coal seam with a depth of 1 300 m in a mine in Shandong province, which verifies the feasibility and scientificity of the system in preventing rock burst disaster.