With the continuous high-intensity development of coal mine in China, mining conditions have gradually deteriorated, and traditional mining methods have brought about a series of resources, safety and environmental problems. Based on the ideas of “low damage of rock strata”, “mining without coal pillars” and “zero solid waste discharge”, the scientific conception of “short-wall filling & long-wall mining” and its technical principle to replace the section coal pillars with solid waste filling belt formed by nearby sorted gangue in underground coal mining area are put forward. Key technologies of“picking-selecting-filling-retaining”have been explored to deal with the problem of the resources waste of remaining coal pillars, environmental pollution caused by solid waste discharge, and technical bottlenecks of traditional mining and safety risk of deep mining as a whole. The theory of slow energy release and the theory of low damage rock control on solid waste filling belt are put forward. Five key technologies are described: “short-wall filling and long-wall mining" system design method, underground intelligent dry-weight light-weight modular sorting system, self-contained and high-efficiency mining technology and equipment,technology and equipment for retaining roadway along filling belt, and the integrated control technology of “short-wall filling & long-wall mining” system.The field application results show that the “small-charge long mining” scientific mining model has a underground gangue direct filling capacity of 2 million t/a and 1 million t/a in the Hulusu Coal Mine and Liuzhuang Coal Mine respectively, and the coal mining is solved by the limited solid waste resource integration. The resources, safety and environmental protection issues can achieve no coal-pillar mining in underground and zero solid waste on the ground. This model has innovated new theories, new technologies and new methods of green mining, and constructed a scientific mining system for new green mining in China.